Diary of Unknown Symptoms

Mystery of the Internal Vibration

Entry for August 03, 2007

The Top Eleven Key Bone Building Nutrients
Susan E. Brown, Ph.D.

While calcium and Vitamin D are essential for bone health, it is likely that every nutrient is important for optimum skeletal well being in one way or another. In this issue of Better Bones, Better Body News and Views we review the top eleven bone-building nutrients and list the preferred supplemental form of each nutrient.

For further information and a listing of the RDA’s, more optimum intake and common
US consumption of each nutrient see our “17 Key Bone Building Nutrients.”


Calcium, and the hydroxyapatite crystal it forms with phosphorus, is essential to the
development and maintenance of bone. These minerals give bone strength and rigidity.
The loss of calcium from bone leads to demineralization and osteoporosis. While
essential to bone, our average daily calcium consumption is commonly less than one-half of what we need. For optimum absorption it is best to use a mix of bioavailable calcium salts in the forms of calcium acetate, calcium tartrate, calcium fumarate and calcium citrate.


Magnesium assures the strength and firmness of the bone and makes teeth harder. Low
magnesium levels have been correlated with abnormal bone crystal formation and
osteoporosis. As a group our magnesium consumption is only 60 to 76% of the RDA. For optimum absorption a mix of bioavailable magnesium salts in the forms of magnesium citrate, magnesium acetate, magnesium tartrate and magnesium fumarate are recommended.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is the great regulator of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Without
adequate vitamin D the body cannot absorb calcium and the bones and teeth become soft and poorly mineralized. Vitamin D inadequacy is associated with increased hip fracture risk. Several surveys show that most Americans consume less than 100 I.U. of vitamin D per day, while needing 400 to 800 I.U. or more. While sun exposure can help make up this shortage, deficient blood vitamin D levels have been found in large percentages of elderly as well as younger persons. The natural cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is the best source for vitamin D, as opposed to synthetic vitamin D2, known as ergocalciferol.


Zinc is required for proper calcium absorption, enhances the activity of vitamin D and is
necessary for proper osteoblast activity and collagen production. Some authorities
estimate that as little as eight percent of US adults consume the RDA of 15 mg for zinc.
The highly bio-available zinc citrate is an excellent form of zinc.


Copper aids in the formation and strengthening of collagen and connective tissue
important to bone. As with manganese, inadequate copper levels have been associated
with the development of osteoporosis. The typical American diet contains only 50% the
RDA for copper. Copper is available in many different forms—complexed with sulfate,
picolinate, gluconate, and amino acids.


A high concentration of silica is found in areas of active bone mineralization and the
mineral is high in strong tissues of the body such as arteries and tendons. Silica appears
to enhance and strengthen bone collagen and connective tissue. Found in the fibers of
food, silica is commonly lost in food processing. Silica is available in many forms and its
uptake is enhanced by using a highly bio-available form of the mineral like magnesium


Recent research reveals that boron is essential for proper metabolism and utilization of
calcium, magnesium and vitamin D while also influencing estrogen balance. Our current
boron intake averages 0.50 to 1.50 mgs per day. A more ideal intake would be 3-6 mg per day. While boron chelates and sodium borate are common supplemental forms, boron citrate is preferable as a highly absorbable form of boron.


Research now shows that manganese plays an essential role in bone cartilage and bone
collagen formation and is required for bone mineralization. Again intake of this essential mineral is most often well below optimal levels nationwide. Manganese bound to citrate as a mineral transporter produces a highly bio-available form of manganese. Manganese bound to picolinate, glucarate or other chelates is also likely well absorbed.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, ascorbate, is involved in a great variety of complex metabolic processes, and
among a host of other things, it is essential for the formation of bone and gum collagen
and connective tissue. While the RDA for vitamin C is extremely low (60 mg), many do
not consume even this minimal level. Vitamin C should always be fully active and not
oxidized. Buffered vitamin C is a preferred supplement source of ascorbate.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is required for synthesis of the bone protein osteocalcin, and essential for the
formation, remodeling and repair of bone. Vitamin K adequacy is threatened by antibiotic use and food processing. Intakes are most commonly well below the desired 500 mcg per day. Phylloquinone is the natural form of vitamin K found in plants.

Essential Fatty Acids

While too much fat, and especially oxidized or trans fats, are damaging to bone, high
quality essential fats are important for optimum bone health. Both EPA (Omega 3 oils
found in fish, flaxseed, canola, soy, walnuts and dark green vegetables) and GLA
(Omega 6 oils found in evening primrose oil, safflower, sunflower, walnuts, pumpkin,
sesame, flax, oils, corn and hemp) increase calcium absorption, reduce urinary calcium
loss, increase calcium deposition in bone and reduce inflammation.
Oil should be cold pressed, kept in the refrigerator and used fresh. Oils that taste bitter are likely rancid and fish oils should be purified to remove heavy metal pesticides and other chemical pollutants.


August 2, 2007 - Posted by | Health | , ,

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